The Cooperative Agricultural Pest Survey Program (CAPS) is a federal program coordinated by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) Plant Protection and Quarantine (PPQ) in collaboration with state departments of agriculture, universities and other entities. The CAPS Program provides funding and support for the state partners to conduct science-based surveys for exotic plant pests, diseases and weeds that have been identified as threats to U.S. agriculture and facilitates early detection, rapid response and management actions needed to address introduced pests that threaten US agricultural and natural ecosystems.
For many years, the Idaho State Department of Agriculture (ISDA) has partnered with CAPS to protect Idaho agriculture from introductions of high risk invasive pests that could damage Idaho crops and forests and negatively impact export activities.
Each year ISDA enters into cooperative agreements with USDA APHIS PPQ for funding to detect invasive pests. Surveys conducted through the CAPS Program in Idaho fields, forests, plant nurseries and urban areas represent an important line of defense against the entry and establishment of new harmful plant pests and weeds.
CORN COMMODITY SURVEY
Corn is a major agronomic crop in Idaho. The USDA National Agricultural Statistical Service reported 555,000 acres of corn were planted in the state during 2015. Idaho is currently the sixth largest U.S. sweet corn producer, as well as the top production state for hybrid sweet corn seed varieties.
A complex of established insect pests on corn exists in Idaho which contains, among others, wireworms, corn rootworm, two species of armyworms, corn earworm, several types of cutworms, grasshoppers, aphids, false chinch bug, thrips and European earwig. Idaho farmers routinely inspect for these pests and treat when found at levels that may have an economic impact on the crop. Periodically, to be proactive, surveys for other potential pests that are not currently known to be in the state are undertaken by the Idaho State Department of Agriculture.
During 2018, ISDA will conduct a trapping survey in the following counties: Ada, Canyon, Cassia, Elmore, Gem, Gooding, Jerome, Lincoln, Minidoka, Owyhee, Payette, Power and Twin Falls. The pests of concern are: False Codling Moth, Old World Bollworm and Spotted Stem Borer. Traps will be set out in mid-May and serviced by ISDA field staff every two weeks. ISDA will also conduct two visual surveys, for Black Maize Beetle, Philippine Downy Mildew and Late Wilt of Corn. The first visual survey will occur in July and the final one in August.
SMALL GRAIN COMMODITY SURVEY
Wheat, which is grown in 42 of 44 Idaho counties, is a prominent crop in Idaho with its largest production areas in the eastern part of the state and the north central Palouse region. Idaho ranks ninth nationally in production of all U.S. wheat. In 2015, Idaho farmers planted approximately 1.2 million acres of wheat, which produced 60.2 million bushels of spring wheat and 57.4 million bushels of winter wheat with a combined production value of $479 million.
A complex of established insect pests exists in Idaho which contains, among others, Hessian fly, wheat curl mite, a complex of six species of aphids, cereal leaf beetle, wheat stem sawfly, grasshoppers, plant bugs, wheat headworm, wheat jointworm, wheat strawworm, wheat stem maggot, wireworms and army cutworm. Idaho farmers routinely inspect for these pests and treat when found at levels that may have an economic impact on the crop. Periodically, to be proactive, surveys for other potential pests that are not currently known to be in the state are undertaken by the Idaho State Department of Agriculture.
During 2018, ISDA will conduct a trapping survey in the following counties: Ada, Bingham, Blaine, Bonneville, Canyon, Caribou, Cassia, Elmore, Fremont, Gem, Gooding, Idaho, Jefferson, Jerome, Latah, Lincoln, Madison, Minidoka, Owyhee, Payette, Power and Twin Falls. The pests of concern are: Egyptian Cotton Leafworm and Silver Y Moth. Traps will be set out in early May and serviced by ISDA field staff every two weeks. ISDA will also conduct two visual surveys for Cucurbit Beetle, Maritime Garden Snail and Cochlicellid Snail. The first visual survey will take place in June and the final one in July.
KARNAL BUNT SURVEY
In the Gem State, wheat is grown in 42 of Idaho's 44 counties and is a prominent crop, with its largest production areas in the eastern part of the state and the north central Palouse region. Idaho is ranked ninth for wheat and wheat product exports. In 2015, Idaho farmers planted approximately 1.2 million acres of wheat, which produced 60.2 million bushels of spring wheat and 57.4 million bushels of winter wheat with a combined production value of $479 million.
The success of the Idaho wheat industry depends on its ability to export product to external markets, including the Asian market where a significant amount of the soft white wheat grown in the state is used in pastry and noodle making. The occurrence of Karnal Bunt (KB), a seed-borne fungal disease that was first identified in India in 1931, would adversely impact the state's export markets and give rise to major regulatory actions. Karnal Bunt was detected in the United States in March 1996 in durum wheat seed by the Arizona Department of Agriculture. A KB-free designation for the state of Idaho's wheat crop is critical to the industry's well-being since a high percentage of the wheat from Idaho is shipped or distributed to export markets, and many countries have a zero tolerance for KB in import shipments.
During 2018, ISDA inspectors plan to collect 62 grain samples from the following 18 counties: Bear Lake, Bingham, Blaine, Boundary, Canyon, Cassia, Clearwater, Elmore, Fremont, Jefferson, Lewis, Lincoln, Madison, Nez Perce, Owyhee, Power, Teton and Washington. Sampling will start when grain harvest begins (typically in mid-July) and finish by October. The samples will be tested by USDA for the presence of KB.
Banner: (silver y moth) Scdmolen, commons.wikimedia.org, Photos: (false codling moth) Marja van der Straten, Bugwood.org / (old world bollworm) Gyorgy Csoka, Hungary Forest Research Institute, Bugwood.org / (spotted stem borer) CAPS, USDA APHIS PPQ / (black maize beetle) Hanna Royals, Screening Aid, USDA APHIS ITP, Bugwood.org / (philippine downy mildew) Bod Kemerait, University of Georgia, Bugwood.org / (late wilt of corn) Ran Drori and Tsafrir Weinberg, plantwise.org / (egyptian cottonworm) Bernard Fransen, Bugwood.org / (silver y moth) Paolo Mazzei, Bugwood.org / ( cucurbit beetle) CAP, USDA APHIS PPQ / (maritime garden snail) James D. Young, USDA APHIS PPQ, Bugwood.org / (cochlicellid snails) Malcolm Storey, Bugwood.org / (karnal bunt symptoms) Ruben Duran, Washington State University, Bugwood.org/ (karnal bunt signs) Gerald hommes, California Polytechnic State University at San Luis Obispo, Bugwood.org.