Idaho In Action / Regulated and Invasive Insect Pest/ Additional Info

The Cooperative Agricultural Pest Survey (CAPS)
Program in Idaho Agriculture

What is The Caps Program?

What is The Caps Program?

The Cooperative Agricultural Pest Survey Program (CAPS) is a federal program coordinated by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) Plant Protection and Quarantine (PPQ) in collaboration with state departments of agriculture, universities and other entities. The CAPS Program provides funding and support for the state partners to conduct science-based surveys for exotic plant pests, diseases and weeds that have been identified as threats to U.S. agriculture and facilitates early detection, rapid response and management actions needed to address introduced pests that threaten US agricultural and natural ecosystems.

For many years, the Idaho State Department of Agriculture (ISDA) has partnered with CAPS to protect Idaho agriculture from introductions of high risk invasive pests that could damage Idaho crops and forests and negatively impact export activities.

Each year ISDA enters into cooperative agreements with USDA APHIS PPQ for funding to detect invasive pests. Surveys conducted through the CAPS Program in Idaho fields, forests, plant nurseries and urban areas represent an important line of defense against the entry and establishment of new harmful plant pests and weeds.


CORN COMMODITY SURVEY

Corn is a major agronomic crop in Idaho. The USDA National Agricultural Statistical Service reported 360,000 acres of corn were planted in the state during 2018. Idaho is currently the sixth largest U.S. sweet corn producer, as well as the top production state for hybrid sweet corn seed varieties.

A complex of established insect pests on corn exists in Idaho which contains, among others, wireworms, corn rootworm, two species of armyworms, corn earworm, several types of cutworms, grasshoppers, aphids, false chinch bug, thrips and European earwig. Idaho farmers routinely inspect for these pests and treat when found at levels that may have an economic impact on the crop. Periodically, to be proactive, surveys for other potential pests that are not currently known to be in the state are undertaken by the Idaho State Department of Agriculture.

During 2019, ISDA will conduct a trapping survey in the following counties: Ada, Canyon, Cassia, Elmore, Gooding, Jerome, Lincoln, Minidoka, Owyhee, Power and Twin Falls. The pests of concern are: European Corn Borer and Silver Y Moth. Traps will be set out in mid-May and serviced by ISDA field staff every two weeks. ISDA will also conduct two visual surveys, for Cucurbit BeetleBrown Stripe Downy Mildew and Java Downy Mildew.  The first visual survey will occur in late June/early July and the final one in August.        


SMALL GRAIN COMMODITY SURVEY

Wheat, which is grown in 42 of 44 Idaho counties, is a prominent crop in Idaho with its largest production areas in the eastern part of the state and the north central Palouse region. Idaho ranks sixth nationally in production of all U.S. wheat.  In 2018, the National Agricultural Statistics Service reported Idaho’s total wheat production yield was more than 100 million bushels in 2018.

Winter wheat: 720,000 acres of winter wheat were planted in 2018, with 680,000 acres harvested.  Winter wheat yields averaged 90 bushels per acre.  Harvested acres of winter wheat are up 10,000 acres from 2017 and production is up 14 percent over the previous year at 61.2 million bushels.

Spring wheat: Idaho growers planted 460,000 acres of spring wheat and harvested 445,000 acres, both up 30,000 over 2017.  Spring wheat production in Idaho totaled 42.3 million bushels, up 20 percent from last year with yields estimated at 95 bushels per acre, an increase of 10 bushels per acre over the previous year.Idaho farmers planted approximately 1.2 million acres of wheat, which produced 60.2 million bushels of spring wheat and 57.4 million bushels of winter wheat with a combined production value of $479 million.

A complex of established insect pests exists in Idaho which contains, among others, Hessian fly, wheat curl mite, a complex of six species of aphids, cereal leaf beetle, wheat stem sawfly, grasshoppers, plant bugs, wheat headworm, wheat jointworm, wheat strawworm, wheat stem maggot, wireworms and army cutworm. Idaho farmers routinely inspect for these pests and treat when found at levels that may have an economic impact on the crop. Periodically, to be proactive, surveys for other potential pests that are not currently known to be in the state are undertaken by the Idaho State Department of Agriculture.

During 2019, ISDA will conduct a trapping survey in the following counties: Ada, Bingham, Bonneville, Canyon, Caribou, Elmore, Fremont, Gooding, Idaho, Jefferson, Jerome, Latah, Lewis, Lincoln, Madison, Minidoka, Nez Perce, Owyhee, Power and Twin Falls. The pests of concern are: Egyptian Cotton Leafworm and Old World Bollworm. Traps will be set out in early May and serviced by ISDA field staff every two weeks. ISDA will also conduct two visual surveys for Sunn PestMaritime Garden Snail and Cochlicellid Snail.  The first visual survey will take place in late May or early June and the final one in July.


KARNAL BUNT SURVEY

In the Gem State, wheat is grown in 42 of Idaho's 44 counties and is a prominent crop, with its largest production areas in the eastern part of the state and the north central Palouse region. Idaho is ranked ninth for wheat and wheat product exports. In 2018, the National Agricultural Statistics Service reported Idaho’s total wheat production yield was more than 100 million bushels in 2018.

Winter wheat: 720,000 acres of winter wheat were planted in 2018, with 680,000 acres harvested.  Winter wheat yields averaged 90 bushels per acre.  Harvested acres of winter wheat are up 10,000 acres from 2017 and production is up 14 percent over the previous year at 61.2 million bushels.

Spring wheat: Idaho growers planted 460,000 acres of spring wheat and harvested 445,000 acres, both up 30,000 over 2017.  Spring wheat production in Idaho totaled 42.3 million bushels, up 20 percent from last year with yields estimated at 95 bushels per acre, an increase of 10 bushels per acre over the previous year.Idaho farmers planted approximately 1.2 million acres of wheat, which produced 60.2 million bushels of spring wheat and 57.4 million bushels of winter wheat with a combined production value of $479 million.

The success of the Idaho wheat industry depends on its ability to export product to external markets, including the Asian market where a significant amount of the soft white wheat grown in the state is used in pastry and noodle making. The occurrence of Karnal Bunt (KB), a seed-borne fungal disease that was first identified in India in 1931, would adversely impact the state's export markets and give rise to major regulatory actions. Karnal Bunt was detected in the United States in March 1996 in durum wheat seed by the Arizona Department of Agriculture. A KB-free designation for the state of Idaho's wheat crop is critical to the industry's well-being since a high percentage of the wheat from Idaho is shipped or distributed to export markets, and many countries have a zero tolerance for KB in import shipments.

During 2019, ISDA inspectors plan to collect 44 grain samples from the following 19 counties: Ada, Bannock, Benewah, Bonneville, Butte, Camas, Caribou, Clark, Franklin, Gem, Gooding, Idaho, Jerome, Kootenai, Latah, Minidoka, Oneida, Payette and Twin Falls. Sampling will start when grain harvest begins (typically in mid-July) and finish by October. The samples will be tested by USDA for the presence of KB.

+ Photo Credits

Banner: (silver y moth) Scdmolen, commons.wikimedia.org, Photos: (european corn borer) Adam Sisson, Iowa State University, Bugwood.org / (silver y moth) commons wikimedia, creative commons attribution 2.0 generic / (cucurbit beetle) CAPS, USDA APHIS PPQ/ (brown stripe downy mildew) C. De Leon, Plant management network.org / (java downy mildew) CAPS, USDA APHIS PPQ / (egyptian cotton leafworm) Bernard Fransen, Bugwood.org / (old world bollworm) Gyorgy Csoka, Hungary Forest Research Institute, Bugwood.org (sunn pest) Natasha Wright, Cook's Pest Control, Bugwood.org/ (maritime garden snail) James D. Young, USDA APHIS PPQ, Bugwood.org / (cochlicellid snails) Malcolm Storey, Bugwood.org / (karnal bunt symptoms) Ruben Duran, Washington State University, Bugwood.org/ (karnal bunt signs) Gerald hommes, California Polytechnic State University at San Luis Obispo, Bugwood.org.